Respiratory Symptoms and BTX Exposure Health Risk Analysis Among the Footware Workers in Ciomas, Bogor

· Occupational Lung Disease

Kurniawidjaja LM, Sofia NA, Hendra, Pudjadi E, Lestari F, Tejamaya M. J Respir Indones. 2012;32(1):36-43.


Introduction : Respiratory tract is one of BTX target organ. This research aims to investigate the lung health risks related to BTX exposure among home based informal footwear workers in Ciomas, in order to get scientific reference for
Maximum Contaminant Level and working tenure restriction.
Method : This study design was cross-sectional, 33 respondens from 7 footwear workshops in Ciomas were choosen by multistage cluster random sampling technic. The first step (2008) using NIOSH 1501 standard methods to assess BTX level and ATS questionnaire for health effects. The second step (2011) using characterization of risk model of the International Programme on Chemical Safety Harmonization Project to analyze the BTX exposure residual risk.
Results : The average of benzene levels at all workshops were over the TLV 0.5 ppm (1.40 ppm), 71% over the toluene TLV 5 ppm (1.40 ppm). Xylene is not detected. The prevalence of cough was 39.4%, rhinitis 5%, shortness of breathe 27.3%, were higher among highly exposed workers. MCL of benzene is 0.31 mg/m3, toluene is 51.57 mg/m3, a safe working period for benzene exposure is maximum 1.3 years and toluene is 1 year.
Conclusion : Irritative respiratory disorders were found related to Benzene and Toluene vapour from the glue. Ventilation and working tenure restriction were suggested to reduce respiratory health risk.

Key words: benzene, toluene, respiratory, footware workshop, health risk analysis

Click for detailed article

Leave a Comment